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قديم 29-10-2009, 09:49 PM
الصورة الرمزية سليم عثمان
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Icon23 اختبار الصلادة hardness testing



HARDNESS TESTING

What is Hardness?


Hardness is the property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration. However, the term hardness may also refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting.




Measurement of Hardness:




Hardness is not an intrinsic material property dictated by precise definitions in terms of fundamental units of mass, length and time. A hardness property value is the result of a defined measurement procedure.

Hardness of materials has probably long been assessed by resistance to scratching or cutting. An example would be material B scratches material C, but not material A. Alternatively, material A scratches material B slightly and scratches material C heavily. Relative hardness of minerals can be assessed by reference to the Mohs Scale that ranks the ability of materials to resist scratching by another material. Similar methods of relative hardness assessment are still commonly used today. An example is the file test where a file tempered to a desired hardness is rubbed on the test material surface. If the file slides without biting or marking the surface, the test material would be considered harder than the file. If the file bites or marks the surface, the test material would be considered softer than the file.

The above relative hardness tests are limited in practical use and do not provide accurate numeric data or scales particularly for modern day metals and materials. The usual method to achieve a hardness value is to measure the depth or area of an indentation left by an indenter of a specific shape, with a specific force applied for a specific time. There are three principal standard test methods for expressing the relationship between hardness and the size of the impression, these being Brinell, Vickers, and Rockwell. For practical and calibration reasons, each of these methods is divided into a range of scales, defined by a combination of applied load and indenter geometry.





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التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة سليم عثمان ; 29-10-2009 الساعة 09:58 PM.
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قديم 29-10-2009, 09:50 PM
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افتراضي Rockwell Hardness Test

Rockwell Hardness Test

The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter. The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0 (Fig. 1A) usually 10 kgf. When equilibrium has been reached, an indicating device, which follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes in depth of penetration of the indenter is set to a datum position. While the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load is applied with resulting increase in penetration (Fig. 1B). When equilibrium has again been reach, the additional major load is removed but the preliminary minor load is still maintained. Removal of the additional major load allows a partial recovery, so reducing the depth of penetration (Fig. 1C). The permanent increase in depth of penetration, resulting from the application and removal of the additional major load is used to calculate the Rockwell hardness number.

HR = E - e


F0 = preliminary minor load in kgf
F1 = additional major load in kgf
F = total load in kgf
e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1 measured in units of 0.002 mm
E = a constant depending on form of indenter: 100 units for diamond indenter, 130 units for steel ball indenter
HR = Rockwell hardness number
D = diameter of steel ball

Fig. 1.Rockwell Principle


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قديم 29-10-2009, 09:51 PM
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افتراضي Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test

Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test

The Rockwell Superficial hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone (N scale) or hardened steel ball indenter. The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0 (Fig. 1A) usually 3 kgf. When equilibrium has been reached, an indicating device that follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes in depth of penetration of the indenter is set to a datum position. While the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load, is applied with resulting increase in penetration (Fig. 1B). When equilibrium has again been reach, the additional major load is removed but the preliminary minor load is still maintained. Removal of the additional major load allows a partial recovery, so reducing the depth of penetration (Fig. 1C). The permanent increase in depth of penetration, e, resulting from the application and removal of the additional major load is used to calculate the Rockwell Superficial hardness number.

HR = E - e


F0 = preliminary minor load in kgf
F1 = additional major load in kgf
F = total load in kgf
e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1, measured in units of 0.001 mm
E = a constant of 100 units for diamond and ball indenters
HR = Rockwell hardness number
D = diameter of steel ball



Fig. 1.Rockwell Superficial Principle



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قديم 29-10-2009, 09:53 PM
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افتراضي Vickers Hardness Test

Vickers Hardness Test

The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds. The two diagonals of the indentation left in the surface of the material after removal of the load are measured using a microscope and their average calculated. The area of the sloping surface of the indentation is calculated. The Vickers hardness is the quotient obtained by dividing the kgf load by the square mm area of indentation.



F= Load in kgf
d = Arithmetic mean of the two diagonals, d1 and d2 in mm


HV = Vickers hardness


When the mean diagonal of the indentation has been determined the Vickers hardness may be calculated from the formula, but is more convenient to use conversion tables. The Vickers hardness should be reported like 800 HV/10, which means a Vickers hardness of 800, was obtained using a 10 kgf force. Several different loading settings give practically identical hardness numbers on uniform material, which is much better than the arbitrary changing of scale with the other hardness testing methods. The advantages of the Vickers hardness test are that extremely accurate readings can be taken, and just one type of indenter is used for all types of metals and surface treatments. Although thoroughly adaptable and very precise for testing the softest and hardest of materials, under varying loads, the Vickers machine is a floor standing unit that is more expensive than the Brinell or Rockwell machines.


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افتراضي Microhardness Test

Microhardness Test

The term microhardness test usually refers to static indentations made with loads not exceeding 1 kgf. The indenter is either the Vickers diamond pyramid or the Knoop elongated diamond pyramid. The procedure for testing is very similar to that of the standard Vickers hardness test, except that it is done on a microscopic scale with higher precision instruments. The surface being tested generally requires a metallographic finish; the smaller the load used, the higher the surface finish required. Precision microscopes are used to measure the indentations; these usually have a magnification of around X500 and measure to an accuracy of +0.5 micrometres. Also with the same observer differences of +0.2 micrometres can usually be resolved. It should, however, be added that considerable care and experience are necessary to obtain this accuracy.



Knoop Hardness Indenter Indentation

The Knoop hardness number KHN is the ratio of the load applied to the indenter, P (kgf) to the unrecovered projected area A (mm2)

KHN = F/A = P/CL2
Where:
F = applied load in kgf
A = the unrecovered projected area of the indentation in mm2
L = measured length of long diagonal of indentation in mm
C = 0.07028 = Constant of indenter relating projected area of the indentation to the square of the length of the long diagonal.

The Knoop indenter is a diamond ground to pyramidal form that produces a diamond shaped indentation having approximate ratio between long and short diagonals of 7:1. The depth of indentation is about 1/30 of its length. When measuring the Knoop hardness, only the longest diagonal of the indentation is measured and this is used in the above formula with the load used to calculate KHN. Tables of these values are usually a more convenient way to look-up KHN values from the measurements.


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قديم 29-10-2009, 09:55 PM
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افتراضي Mohs Hardness Scale

Mohs Hardness Scale

The Mohs hardness scale for minerals has been used since 1822. It simply consists of 10 minerals arranged in order from 1 to 10. Diamond is rated as the hardest and is indexed as 10; talc as the softest with index number 1. Each mineral in the scale will scratch all those below it as follows:


Diamond10
Corundum9
Topaz8
Quartz7
Orthoclase (Feldspar)6
Apatite5
Fluorite4
Calcite3
Gypsum2
Talc1
Mohs Hardness Scale



The steps are not of equal value and the difference in hardness between 9 and 10 is much greater than between 1 and 2. The hardness is determined by finding which of the standard minerals the test material will scratch or not scratch; the hardness will lie between two points on the scale - the first point being the mineral which is scratched and the next point being the mineral which is not scratched. Some examples of the hardness of common metals in the Mohs scale are copper between 2 and 3 and tool steel between 7 and 8. This is a simple test, but is not exactly quantitative and the standards are purely arbitrary numbers.

The materials engineer and metallurgist find little use for the Mohs scale, but it is possible to sub-divide the scale and some derived methods are still commonly used today. The file test is useful as a rapid and portable qualitative test for hardened steels, where convention hardness testers are not available or practical. Files can be tempered back to give a range of known hardness and then used in a similar fashion to the Mohs method to evaluate hardness.


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قديم 29-10-2009, 09:57 PM
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افتراضي The Scleroscope Hardness Test

The Scleroscope Hardness Test

The Scleroscope test consists of dropping a diamond tipped hammer, which falls inside a glass tube under the force of its own weight from a fixed height, onto the test specimen. The height of the rebound travel of the hammer is measured on a graduated scale. The scale of the rebound is arbitrarily chosen and consists on Shore units, divided into 100 parts, which represent the average rebound from pure hardened high-carbon steel. The scale is continued higher than 100 to include metals having greater hardness.

In normal use the shore scleroscope test does not mark the material under test. The Shore Scleroscope measures hardness in terms of the elasticity of the material and the hardness number depends on the height to which the hammer rebounds, the harder the material, the higher the rebound. Advantages of this method are portability and non-marking of the test surface.


The Durometer

The Durometer is a popular instrument for measuring the indentation hardness of rubber and rubber-like materials. The most popular testers are the Model A used for measuring softer materials and the Model D for harder materials.

The operation of the tester is quite simple. The material is subjected to a definite pressure applied by a calibrated spring to an indenter that is either a cone or sphere and an indicating device measures the depth of indentation.


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